With the rising complexities of the technology world, the desire to simplify work intensifies by the day. Today, we all want our work to be more systematic to be more productive and efficient. To achieve that method study is conducted. So, what exactly is a method study, and what is the procedure of method study?
What is a Method Study?
Method study is putting work to systematic, critical examination to improve its effectiveness and efficiency.
It is one of the keys to increasing productivity. It intends to study and improve monotonous manual work, and it is also efficient for any type of activity at any level of an organization.
The fundamental aim is to simplify jobs or working techniques to perform the essential functionality to utilize as few resources as feasible.
The method study is converged on higher productivity. Method study often conducts to simplify work or working techniques to increase productivity.
It is always preferable to accomplish the required function with the desired objective of consuming the fewest resources possible.
Method denotes how a task is to complete, for example, a description of how we use resources to attain our goal.
Methods are an essential component of task completion and represent:
- How successfully our techniques make use of the limited resources available, such as personnel, machinery, materials, and money.
- How our approaches physically affect the unit’s output.
- The output quality produces through the use of our approaches.
Methods can so determine the number of input materials, time power, and money used.
So techniques may be regarded as the core where one may seek to decrease resource consumption hence lowering cost per unit output through suitable procedures.
The cost and quality of the product generated can be determined by the technique design.
The Objective of the Method Study
(1) Process and procedure enhancements.
(2) Improvements to production and workplace layout.
(3) Enhancement of plant and equipment design.
(4) Lessening of unneeded tiredness and motions
(5) Make use of better materials, machines, and labor.
(6) Improved working conditions.
Analyses should be performed in a clean and orderly manner while analyzing any problem.
Typically, the cycle begins with identifying the dilemmas and collecting all essential information about the difficulties.
The facts or information next scrutinize critically.
Then a choice is made and carried out—all of this followed by routine checks.
Scope of Method Study
The scope of the method study is not limited to the industrial industry.
Method research approaches can also be used effectively in the service industry.
It is appropriate for use in offices, hospitals, banks, and other service companies.
Method study may successfully implement in the following areas in manufacturing:
- To enhance work processes and practices.
- To establish the optimal order in which to do tasks.
- To intensify the layout and smoothen material flow with little backtracking.
- To improve working conditions and, as a result, labor efficiency.
- To alleviate labor boredom.
- To increase plant and material use.
- Waste and inefficient processes must eliminate.
- Reduce production costs by shortening operating cycle times.
The Procedure of Method Study
The key to Method Study effectiveness is its practitioners’ adherence to a fundamental protocol that guarantees every part of the projects done in the proper sequence.
This procedure consists of eight steps, each of which must complete in the exact sequence specified.
The process generally observes as linear, with the following key steps:
SELECT the work to be analyzed and outline its parameters.
RECORD the critical facts regarding the task and gather any extra data that may require from suitable sources.
EXAMINE how the works did and question its aim, place sequence, and technique of execution.
DEVELOP the most practical, cost-effective, and efficient technique, relying on all parties’ contributions.
EVALUATE many choices to build a new enhanced technique by comparing the cost-effectiveness of the chosen new method to the current performance process.
DEFINE the new approach as a consequence and convey it to all involved, i.e., management, supervisors, and workers.
INSTALL the new procedure as a standard practice and teach those who will be using it.
MAINTAIN the new way and implement control measures to avoid reverting to the older manner of work.
Step 1. Select
The work selected for the method study might be an identified problem area or an identified possibility.
It may be defined through a comprehensive review of existing data, standard monitoring or control processes, high levels of discontent and dispute, or as part of a change in business policy, practicing, techniques, or site, and is because it meets specific conditions of uncertainty and priority.
Certain things must be analyzed while selecting work for method study:
(1) Economic factors:
Only positions with a high economic value are preferred.
Jobs featuring bottlenecks that stymie other manufacturing processes, activities requiring repeated effort, and so on are analyzed and studied.
(2) Technical factors
The availability of the technical knowledge required for the study is a significant element to keep in mind while choosing a career.
Consider a machine tool that is not operating at a high enough speed to maximize efficiency.
So, the research will state that speed should be raised, but can the tool be sped up, or is the machine structure capable of handling this additional load? These are the problems that constantly spring to mind when picking the work to be investigated.
(3) Human factors:
Human reactions are notoriously tricky to forecast.
As a result, the expertise of local staff and conditions will help to lessen issues.
As a result, if the occupations chosen contain disagreeable aspects such as filthy labor or hard lifting, the workers will happily accept them.
Step 2. Define
Before initiating any method study research, it is vital to create precise terms of reference that specify the research’s goal, scale, scope, and limits.
It should also entail ascertaining who “owns” the problem or circumstance and how much ownership is shared.
It may spark a discussion about the project’s goals, reporting procedures and frequencies, and success metrics.
This procedure seldom introduces as a unique and independent step of method study, referred to as the “Define” step.
It leads to an investigative strategy that includes acceptable methodologies, persons, and timeframes.
Step 3. Record
Following the task selection to be investigated, the following stage in the fundamental approach is documenting all data relevant to the modern strategy.
It is crucial to record all relevant facts about the current approach to visualize the activities chosen for investigation in their entirety and improve them through future critical analysis. Records are notably valuable for comparing the efficiency of the suggested better procedure before and after.
The recording techniques are determined to simplify and standardize the recording process. Charts and diagrams use to do this.
Types of Recording Techniques
It is the most common technique of documenting information.
The tasks that comprise the occupations document using method study symbols.
The charts must carefully prepare so that the information they display is easily understood and recognized.
The graphic should include the following data.
These charts use to track the movement of an operator or a piece of equipment (i.e., in motion study).
- Complete summary of the activities.
- Whether the charting is for the current or planned approach.
- Precise reference to when the activities will start and complete.
- Time and distance models applied wherever necessary.
- Charting’s date and the person’s name who does charting.
Types of Charts
It categorized into two types:
(A) Macro motion charts and
(B) Micromotion charts.
Macro motion charts are used for macro motion analysis, whereas micro motion charts utilize for micro-motion analysis. A macro motion study can be measured using a stopwatch, but micro-motion research cannot be measured using a stopwatch.
MACRO MOTION CHARTS
The four charts shown below are examples of this type:
- Operation Process Chart
- Flow Process Chart
- Two-Handed Process Chart
- Multiple Activity Chart
Diagrams Used in Method Study
The flow process chart depicts the sequence and character of movement but not the path of action.
There are frequently undesired states in movement pathways, such as congestion, backtracking, and needless lengthy moves.
A representation of the working area in the form of flow diagrams or string diagrams create to capture these external aspects:
To investigate several layout designs and, as a result, pick the most optimal arrangement.
To analyze traffic and frequency along the plant’s various routes.
Detection of backtracking and impediments while moving.
There are two kinds of diagrams
- Flow diagrams
- and string diagrams
Symbols Used in Method Study
Gilbert invented the graphic style of recording to portray data simply and without ambiguity, allowing people to comprehend them quickly and clearly.
Symbols are more beneficial than written descriptions.
METHOD STUDY SYMBOLS
An operation happens when an object’s qualities purposefully alter in one or more ways (physical or chemical).
It denotes the primary steps of a process, technique, or procedure.
An inspection happens when an object is examined and compared to quality and quantity standards.
Transportation refers to the transport of personnel, goods, or equipment from one location to another.
Delay D (Temporary Storage)
When the immediate execution of the next scheduled thing does not occur, this refers to a delay.
Storage happens when an object is held in a secure location and safeguard against unwanted removal.
Materials are held in stores, for example, to supply to various jobs.
Step 4. Examine
Examine the facts carefully. It is a crucial step in the whole study.
It is converged on interrogating the various actions of the process in a systematic, logical, and objective manner.
The questioning sequence follows a well-established pattern that investigates the objective for which, the area at which, the order in which, the individual by whom, and how each activity performs to eliminate, simplify, combine, and reorganize the various elements of work to improve the work method.
Step 5. Develop:
The enhanced approach will develop as the next step in the method study.
The examination of existing work methods serves as a starting point for synthesizing potential job performance enhancements.
Alternative options are recognized, and the best one select for usage.
In general, the evaluation process goes as follows:
- Choose particular measurable and unquantifiable criteria.
- Forecast the performance of each alternative concerning these criteria.
- Convert your estimations to monetary values.
- Evaluate options using all of the criteria.
- Choose the chosen option.
It may be preferable to design two or more enhanced approaches in many circumstances, some conservative and others radical.
Step 6. Install:
Install the enhanced technique. It entails training individuals who will be performing the new procedure.
Cooperation from both supervisors and workers is wanted for the effective implementation of the new strategy.
Their prior involvement in some or all of the preceding processes increases the likelihood that the new technique will effectively implement.
Trail or pilot runs may conduct, during which small changes may make to simplify functioning.
When the new approach is to install, it is good for the work-study guy to be present on the shop floor.
Step 7. Maintain
The final step in method study is to keep the better technique.
Even after the operators have tech and adjustments to the equipment and layout have been made, there is no guarantee that the technique will use as intended.
As a result, method engineers must monitor the new technique frequently and consult with those affected.