Case Study has no accurate definition, but in simple words, it could be said as a methodology which is mostly seen in life sciences and social sciences. A case study is an intensive study involving a person, group or unit. In other words, it can also be defined as a systematic investigation of a community, group of persons or even a single individual in which every single data is examined in depth.
The information is gathered from different sources and is then organized together. The sources include journals, observations, interviews, literature, etc.
A case study is not a research method, but the researchers select different ways of collection of data and analyzing the same generates suitable materials for the case study.
A case study is also used to study complex natural phenomena so that the researchers can know more about them. The broad topics are then narrowed down into smaller chunks and are then studied by the researchers to increase their understanding of the cases.
Often a case study involves several similar types of phenomenon or cases than other researching on a single case because it makes things a lot clearer. This gives the researchers a better answer to the questions they have been looking for.
Method of Case Study
The steps or processes used in a case study are very much similar to those used in research. The first step in a case study is identifying a group of similar cases that can be grouped to make the analysis easy. Now a search is conducted to figure out the basic things about the case. This includes analyzing media reports, literature, the internet, etc.
Benefits and limitations
A single case study is warranted if a researcher wants to study a particular phenomenon. It allows the researcher to research on a single topic. Multiple case study is warranted when a researcher wants to study a group of cases. The evidence and other answers arising from a single case study sare not much reliable or accurate. On the other hand, multiple case study gives more precise and dependable figures.
There may be many advantages of the case study, but at the same time, there are several limitations. The process of analyzing data and handling bulk data is quite complicated, and the researchers or data analysts need to be very careful. Even the most minor mistake might completely turn the direction of research.