For a long now, the human race is severely suffering from the ravaging effect of the contagious disease Coronavirus, also known as Covid 19. The virus has infected millions of people and has been responsible for almost 3.3 million deaths.
The world is blazing in unrelenting directions, and the magnitude of the situation is frightening as the case rises in the world. As a result, everything seems to be out of control.
The arrival of the long-awaited COVID-19 vaccine has brought a ray of sunshine to the world during this neverending pandemic crisis. However, it also raised a slew of concerns.
According to the World Health Organization, about 180 COVID-19 vaccines are being invented around the world.
Each vaccine has a subtly different approach to preparing the immune system to identify and suppress the virus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2.
Types of Covid 19 Vaccine
1. Virus Vector Vaccine
The genetic material from the COVID-19 virus is injected into a certain kind of compromised live virus, like an adenovirus, in this form of the vaccine. The damaged virus (viral vector) is used as a delivery mechanism. As the viral vector enters your cells, it carries genetic material from the COVID-19 virus, instructing the cells to replicate the S protein.
When S proteins are found on the surfaces of the cells, your immune system responds by producing antibodies and protective white blood cells. If you are infected with the COVID-19 virus, your antibodies will resist it.
The first viral vector vaccine for Covid-19 is Oxford-AstraZeneca. CanSino Biologics, Gamaleya Research Institute, and Johnson & Johnson are among those in late-stage research.
They all use adenoviruses – a kind of virus that causes the common cold – as the vector or carrier.
The Ervebo (rVSV-ZEBOV) Ebola vaccine is another example of a viral vector vaccine; it employs the vesicular stomatitis virus as the carrier.
2. Inactivated vaccine
Inactivated vaccines are a foolproof method of vaccination.
That is the technology used in the poliovirus vaccine as well as other forms of flu vaccines.
Inactivated vaccines include viruses that have been treated with heat, chemicals, or radiation not to replicate but can also elicit an immune response.
It is universally perceived as secure and can be used in persons with compromised immune systems.
This vaccine is a sequence of genetic code that employs genetically modified mRNA to advise the cells on producing a harmless fragment of the S protein present on the surface of the COVID-19 virus. Following vaccination, the immune cells begin producing S protein fragments and presenting them on cell surfaces. As a result, the body produces antibodies.
These antibodies will destroy the COVID-19 virus if you get infected with it. Since assisting the cells in the formation of protein fragments, the mRNA is rapidly degraded.
It never makes it into the nucleus of your cells, where your DNA is stored. Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines all use mRNA.
4.Whole virus vaccine
To elicit an immune response, many traditional vaccines use whole viruses. There are two methods to consider.
A reduced version of the virus is used in live attenuated vaccines, which can also reproduce without causing disease.
Inactivated vaccines use viruses that have had their genetic material killed, preventing them from replicating and eliciting an immune response. Both forms use well-established technology and regulatory approval pathways, but live attenuated ones can cause disease in people with compromised immune systems and often need careful cold storage, making their use more difficult in low-resource countries.
People with weaker immune systems may be given inactivated virus vaccines, but they will need to be kept cold.
Sinovac, Bharat Biotech, and two Sinopharm vaccines are among the most advanced inactivated Covid-19 vaccines in production.
Whooping cough, rabies, and hepatitis A vaccines are examples of current inactivated vaccines.
Medicago Inc. is testing a virus-like particle vaccine in phase III clinical trials. The HPV/cervical cancer vaccine is an example of an emerging vaccine.
5. Protein Subunit vaccines
Subunit vaccines use pathogen particles, often protein fragments, to elicit an immune response. That reduces the chance of side effects, but it also intimates that the immune system is weak.
That is why adjuvants are often used to help improve the immune response. The hepatitis B vaccine is an example of an emerging subunit vaccine. Novavax and the Chinese Academy of Sciences are two of the most experienced Covid-19 vaccine developers using this technique.
6. live-attenuated virus
A live-attenuated vaccine employs a living but damaged form of the virus or very similar to it.
This form of vaccine includes the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the chickenpox and shingles vaccine.
Like the inactivated vaccine, this method employs similar technologies and can be produced on a large scale.
Such vaccines, however, may not be adequate for people with compromised immune systems.
The pros and cons of Covid vaccines
|Type of Vaccine||Pros||Cons|
|Virus vector Vaccine||1. Antigen distribution to target cells that is highly selective and antigen expression that is strong after vaccination 2. Sometimes, a single dosage is sufficient to induce long-term defence.||1. Individuals may still have a degree of immune immunity against the virus vector, minimizing the vaccine’s efficacy. In other words, the body’s immune response is directed toward the vector rather than the antigen. 2.Since certain virus-vectored vaccines are produced on a small scale, they are expensive|
|RNA Vaccine||1. These vaccines can be developed rapidly based solely on genetic sequencing. 2. They are readily made, which means they can be produced cheaply. 3. COVID-19 is not caused by DNA/RNA fragments.||1. Since there are no licensed DNA/RNA vaccines for medicinal use in humans, they are referred to as “next-generation vaccines. As a result, they are expected to meet significant regulatory challenges before being licensed for use. 2. Since they only enable a fragment of the virus to be produced, they can elicit a weak protective immune response, necessitating several boosters. 3. There is a possible chance that vaccine DNA will blend into the genome.|
|Inactivated vaccines||1.a well-known technology that is widely regarded as secure 2. It can be seen in patients with compromised immune systems||1. The Chinese government has given emergency clearance for the exclusive use of Sinovac Biotech’s inactivated COVID-19 vaccine.|
|Protein Subunit vaccine||1. Subunit vaccinations are commonly considered to be healthy because they have no live components. 2. It can be used in individuals with compromised immune systems and other vulnerable groups||1.The protein antigens that better induce an immune response must be thoroughly studied. 2. It will elicit an inadequate immune response, implying that safety would most likely necessitate several boosters or the administration of the vaccine in conjunction with an immune system stimulant.|
|Live-attenuated virus vaccine||1.good defence since the vaccine mimics the normal infection mechanism 2. cost-effective for large-scale production with a well-known regulatory clearance pathway 3. a single immunization without the need for additional molecules (adjuvants) to activate the immune system||1. The possibility of reverting to a disease-causing condition is improbable. 2. Owing to possible safety issues, use is restricted in individuals with compromised immune systems. 3. It will necessitate cold storage, limiting delivery capacity|
The benefits of getting Covid vaccine
Kudos if you have already got the vaccine! Share these facts with those that might be sceptical. If you’re unsure if the vaccine is suitable for you, remember these four advantages it might give you and your loved ones.
Protects against life-threatening illnesses
The three approved vaccines have been shown in studies to be successful at preventing severe illness from COVID-19.
And if you were immunized and are poisoned, you are very unlikely to get seriously ill.
Clinical trials for the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines revealed that they were ultimately successful at avoiding severe illness.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine was found to be 85 per cent safe against serious illness.
According to studies, vaccinated patients who get infected with COVID-19 have mild to severe cases relative to those who are not vaccinated.
As a result, if properly vaccinated, your chance of hospitalization and mortality due to COVID-19 is virtually eliminated.
Lessens the chance of infection
When you have your first injection, your body starts developing antibodies to the coronavirus.
These antibodies assist the immune system in fighting the infection once you are exposed, lowering the chances of contracting the disease.
In the US, three vaccines have been approved for use, and they are all more than 70% effective in preventing infection.
Find out all about efficacy. You may still get sick after being vaccinated, but when more people are vaccinated, the odds are decreased even more due to a phenomenon known as herd immunity. Being vaccinated thus decreases the chances of infection and adds to community safety, lowering the risk of virus transmission.
Benefit your unborn child
According to a report, expectant mothers who undergo the COVID-19 vaccine develop antibodies to the virus, which they pass on to their unborn baby through the placenta.
It was also discovered that mothers transfer antibodies to their newborns through breast milk.
This means that the newborns have some immunity to the infection, which is particularly significant given that young infants are unable to receive the vaccine.
Learn more about the vaccines that can be avoided for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.
Reunion with friends and relatives
It would help if you met other individuals who have been vaccinated or others at low risk of infection without wearing a mask after receiving the vaccine and waiting the recommended time for the body to develop immunity.
This is the first step toward re-establishing those vital in-person relationships in our lives.
Even if you have been exposed to someone who has tested positive for COVID-19 and are wholly vaccinated and not having symptoms, you do not need to quarantine.
After a year of controversy, the vaccine has arrived, with apparent advantages that should compel everybody to get the injection.
You will defend not only yourself and your family but also your environment by opting to be vaccinated.
Get Rid of Masks.
We’ve just reached a point in our lives when we no longer want to wear the mask and return to our everyday lives. The vaccination is the next step of our efforts to return to a more natural way of life.
To delay the spread of the virus, public health initiatives such as mask use, physical separation, and hand-washing were put in place, and they have proved to be effective.
We should maintain these precautions until a sufficient number of people, including the most vulnerable members of our population, have been vaccinated. These laws, however, will not be in effect indefinitely.
According to new research, vaccinated individuals infected with the coronavirus have fewer virus particles in their nose and mouth and are less likely to transmit it to others.
This discovery is significant because being vaccinated today protects you and prevents the virus’s dissemination to loved ones and mates.
When enough individuals are vaccinated from the virus by vaccines and previous illness, we will achieve herd immunity, which means the virus’s propagation is impossible.
Masks and physical distance can no longer be necessary at that stage. However, for the time being, we must try to follow public health advice.
Covid has had a massive impact on countries’ economies. When enough people are vaccinated against the virus, fewer people will be infected with the virus. There will be fewer cases globally, no necessary lockdown, everyone can return to their previous way of life, and the economy will automatically get back on track.
Disadvantages of getting vaccinated
- Each vaccine is made up of various components, and each will have a different effect on you.
- People who previously had allergic reactions to certain vaccines may have another allergic reaction.
- The vaccine is not 100%effecive as a result; even if you’ve been vaccinated, you might still get sick
- Any patients with compromised immune systems cannot be vaccinated or can only be vaccinated under the control of a health care professional.
Vaccination side effects
Before getting vaccinated, please make sure you know about the side effects of vaccination.
The majority of vaccine side effects are minor.
Any patients would have no adverse consequences at all.
When they do occur, the following side effects, some of which are rarer than others, can occur:
- Injection site irritation, redness, or swelling
- joint discomfort at the injection site
- muscle wasting
- sleep disruptions caused by a mild to high fever
- memory loss
- complete muscle dysfunction in a particular region of the body,
- hearing or vision loss
Some risk factors do raise the chances of developing side effects from a vaccine. Here are some of those risk factors:
- a weakened or suppressed immune system
- being ill at the time of vaccination
- having a prior or family history of vaccine reactions
Vaccines seldom cause severe or life-threatening side effects or reactions. Indeed, most people are at a greater risk of contracting infections if they are not vaccinated.
Not all of the COVID-19 vaccines currently being offered will be successful. Some may be halted due to safety concerns or a lack of security. As a result, the fact that a diverse portfolio of vaccine methods and innovations is advancing across clinical trials is encouraging. We don’t want to risk putting all of our eggs in one basket. To have widespread defence, we will most likely need a repertoire of COVID-19 vaccines.
We must put our confidence in medical practitioners and their guidance. Vaccination would be healthy and prosperous for all members of society, including children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems, thanks to different vaccine formulas.