As we already know, system analysis and design is a broad word that encompasses methodologies for creating high-quality information systems that combine information technology, people, and data to meet business needs.
And to establish if a proposed systems project is technically, financially, and operationally feasible the project manager conducts a feasibility study. One of the most crucial stages in the development of software is the feasibility study.
This study is conducted after the developers have received all of the client’s requirements.
All of these requirements are evaluated, and a final list is provided.
Since the client may or may not be a technical expert, the requirements may be inconsistent or ambiguous.
As an outcome, it is crucial to examine the requirements and conduct a feasibility study.
This article will go through the significance of feasibility studies in system analysis and design. But first, let’s study a little about system analysis and design.
What is System Analysis?
System analysis is the process of collecting and evaluating information, discovering issues, and dissecting down a system into its constituent parts.
The primary goal of system analysis is to investigate various systems or sections of systems to determine the system’s objectives.
System analysis is a problem-solving methodology that assists in improving the system and ensuring that all of the system’s components operate efficiently to achieve their goals.
The analysis essentially aids in outlining the tasks that the system should execute. System analysis is a procedure that must be carried out prior to the development of software.
The system analyst is often in charge of this task.
A system analyst is a person that interacts with users or clients, asking them about their software needs and determining whether or not they are viable.
They distribute the job among their teams after checking all of the specifics, and the teams work to satisfy the client’s expectations.
What is System Design?
System design is the process that assists in the planning of a new business system or the replacement of an existing system by describing its modules or components to meet specified needs.
The system design also focuses on techniques for achieving the system’s goal.
The primary focus of System Analysis and Design is on Technology, Systems, and Processes.
There are primarily two sorts of system designs: logical design and physical design.
1. Logical Design
The logical design of the system is the process of designing the system’s many components.
What are the system’s inputs and outputs, and how will data flow through the system? What processes will be performed?
All of these concerns are outlined in the design of a logical system.
It is a virtual design that serves as the foundation for the actual design of the system.
In the logical design of the system, structured designing techniques like Data Flow Diagrams (DFD), Entity Relationship Diagrams (ER diagrams), Decision Trees, and so on are used.
2. Physical System Design –
In physical system design, the actual procedures for forming the system are implemented.
The primary focus is on how inputs will enter the system, how that will be checked, and how the output will be sent to its address.
All procedures and processes are designed as part of the system’s logical design.
What is a Feasibility Study in system analysis and design?
A feasibility study is a preliminary assessment that assists management in determining if a system is viable for development or not.
- It recognizes the possibilities of enhancing an existing system, creating a new system, and producing revised estimations for ongoing system development.
- It is used to sketch out the problem and determine whether a practical or acceptable solution exists.
- The primary goal of a feasibility study is to affirm the scale of the problem rather than solving it.
- A feasibility study produces a formal system proposal, which serves as a decision document and describes the whole nature and scope of the proposed system.
Types of Feasibility
The following are the various types of feasibility study:
• Technical Feasibility
Technical feasibility aids in gaining access to existing resources as well as technology essential for completing the user’s needs in the software within the budget and schedule constraints.
In the technical feasibility, the following tasks are done:
- Assists in assessing the stability of the technology employed.
- Is the required technology available?
- Or are the proposed functionalities viable to integrate with current/available technology?
- Examine the technical talents and talents of software development team members.
The analyst must determine if the new system can be developed given the available technological resources.
If not, can the system be updated or expanded in such a way that it meets the request under consideration?
If existing systems cannot be expanded or modified, the next consideration is if there is technology available that fits the requirements.
At the same time, the analyst may examine whether the organization has employees who are technically capable of achieving the objectives.
If not, the question becomes whether they can recruit extra programmers, testers, specialists, or people with other programming talents than their own, or whether they can outsource the job.
Another consideration is if there are software packages that can achieve their goals, or if the program must be tailored for the firm.
It looks at the technical viability of each implementation option.
Importance of technical feasibility
- It studies and assesses whether or not the solution is supported by existing technology.
- The analyst assesses if existing technological resources should be updated or new ones introduced to meet the new needs.
- It assures that the candidate system responds appropriately to the extent to which it can support the technological upgrade.
Operational/ Behavioral Feasibility:
The behavioral feasibility is analyzed to determine whether or not the people or workers in the firm will utilize it.
Operational feasibility is based on human resources and determines whether or not the program will work after it has been properly created.
The operational feasibility performs the following tasks:
- The operational feasibility aids in deciding whether or not the solution proposed by the software development team is acceptable.
- Operational feasibility also aids in establishing if the issues foreseen in the user requirements are a high priority.
- It determines whether the program is user-friendly or not
- Its interface should be simple enough that everyone can utilize it.
- Assists in determining if the organization is pleased with the alternative options presented by the software development team members.
Suppose for a minute that both technical and economic resources are deemed enough.
The systems analyst must still examine the project’s operational viability.
The operational feasibility of a project is determined by the human resources available for the project, and it entails estimating whether or not the system will run and be used once it is created.
If users are essentially wedded to the current system, perceive no faults with it, and are not involved in demanding a new system in general, opposition to installing the new system will be significant.
Its chances of ever being operational are slim.
Alternatively, if users have indicated a desire for a system that is operational more of the time, in a more efficient and accessible manner, the odds of the desired system being utilized are higher.
The user interfaces that are selected account for a large portion of the art of assessing operational feasibility.
Importance of operational feasibility
- It assesses if the system is functional once it has been built and installed.
- It assures that management will support the proposed system and will operate in the modern organizational setting.
- It assesses whether users will be impacted and if they will accept changed or new business processes that influence the potential system advantages.
- It also assures that the candidate system’s computing resources and network architecture are operational.
Importance of behavioral feasibility
- It assesses and predicts user attitudes or behaviors regarding the creation of a new system.
- It aids in deciding if the system necessitates extra effort to educate, retrain, transfer, and modify employee job status on new business practices.
Economic feasibility determines if the necessary software has the ability to provide financial rewards for a company.
This sort of research includes the cost of the software development team, the cost of the study involved in completing a feasibility study, and the expected cost of software and hardware.
Only if software focuses on the concerns described below can it be regarded viable:
- The expense of training, development team, software, and hardware.
- The cost of undertaking software research activities such as requirements analysis and requirements elicitation.
- The cost of developing software to provide long-term benefits for a company.
- It is also studied if the program can be produced within the financial constraints.
- Because some clients demand a lot of functionality in their program but are unwilling to spend the appropriate money.
The main resources to consider are your time and the time of the systems analysis team, the cost of doing a comprehensive systems study (including the time of personnel you will be working with), the cost of company employee time, the projected cost of hardware, and the projected cost of software or software development.
Before committing to a comprehensive systems study, the concerned firm must be able to understand the benefit of the investment it is considering.
If the short-term expenses are not offset by long-term advantages, or if there is no immediate decrease in operating expenses, the system is not commercially viable, and the project is canceled.
Importance of Economic Feasibility
- It assesses the efficacy of a potential system using the cost/benefit analysis approach.
- It displays the net advantage of the candidate system in terms of organizational benefits and expenses.
- The primary goal of the Economic Feasibility Study is to evaluate the economic needs of a candidate system before committing investment capital to a project.
- It selects the alternative that maximizes the organization’s net value by returning cash as soon as possible and with the least amount of risk affiliated with constructing the candidate system.
It is the most significant research for determining the project’s success.
If the projects are not finished by the deadline, they will all fail.
An organization can estimate the time necessary to complete a project through scheduling feasibility.
The time required for the creation of the system is calculated based on the requirements.
When all of these components are in order, manpower is assigned to their respective jobs, and every effort is made to complete the assignment before the deadline.
Importance of Scheduling feasibility
- It guarantees that the project is finished within the time frame or schedule specified.
- It also evaluates and confirms whether or not the project’s deadlines are feasible.
Steps Involved in Feasibility Study
When doing a feasibility study, the following steps are followed:
- Create a project team and choose a project leader.
- Create system flowcharts.
- Determine the shortcomings of the present system and define targets.
- List the alternative solutions or probable candidate systems for meeting objectives.
- Determine the feasibility of each choice, including technical feasibility, operational feasibility, and so on.
- Each proposed system’s performance and cost-effectiveness should be weighed.
- Rank the other options and choose the best candidate system.
- Prepare a system proposal for the final project direction and submit it to management for approval.
Advantages of conducting a feasibility study
- Improves project team concentration
- Aids in discovering new prospects
- Provides essential information for decision making
- Narrows business choices
- Increases the possibility of success by analyzing a variety of parameters.
A feasibility study assists the user and developer in determining the basis on which their system will be built and what features they may put in the program.
The primary goal of conducting a feasibility study is to determine the reasons for developing a system that is acceptable to all users and can be readily updated to meet their needs.